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Mentally Impaired Offenders Syllabus (Fall 2008)

Aug. 24, 2008


CCJ 499 Seq. Number 11670

Tuesday 7:15-9:45 pm,  3 credit hours

Classroom AC 282

College of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Dept of Criminology & Criminal Justice

NAU Fall Semester 2008


Mary E. White, B.A., J.D.


Yuma County Attorney’s Office

250 W. 2nd St.,  Suite G

Yuma, AZ 85364

Office hours by appointment

928-817-4335 (weekdays)

928-257-9824 (cell)

Course Description :  Study of the problems involving mentally impaired offenders in U.S. criminal justice system.

Student Learning Expectations/Outcomes for this Course :

(1)  Students should have knowledge of  current problems involving mentally impaired offenders in the U.S. criminal justice system.

(2)  Students should have an overview of the approaches currently being used or proposed for solving these problems.

Course structure/approach:   Lecture, class discussion,  role play exercises, guest speakers, readings, research reports,   written assignments, field trips and final exam.

Textbook and required materials:
Required text is “Crazy” by Pete Earley (available in college bookstore)

Other reading assignments will be selections from the reading lists.

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes

Methods of Assessment

Written assignments based upon class discussions & assigned readings

Each class session will be accompanied by a written assignment due at the next class session.  Each assignment will be 1-2 pages in length.   A reading assignment will also be required for each class session.

Research Report -substantial research paper -at least 10 pages

Final Exam

Extra credit activities:  a written report must be completed as to each activity.

Timeline for Assessment

Written assignments will be graded & returned

Students are encouraged to turn in research drafts early and more often than required, in order to receive as much feedback as possible.

Draft research report due:  October 28

Final Research report due:  November 18

Final Exam: December 9

Grading System

Points are awarded for accuracy of knowledge, identification of sources & original thinking.

Grammar, punctuation and spelling will be considered in

Grading:  90-100% A
80-89 %  B
70-79%  C
60- 69% D

Course policy
Retests/makeup tests:
Final Exam may be made up if missed due to illness or personal emergency.   The make-up exam may not be the same as the exam given in class.

Attendance: If class is missed, student is responsible for making up the reading and/or assignments missed.

Statement on plagiarism and cheating. Plagiarism and/or cheating will result in a failing grade.

University policies:  See attached Safe Working and Learning Environment, Students with Disabilities, Institutional Review Board, and Academic Integrity policies.


1. Knowledge of types of mental impairment

2.  Understanding of how mental impairment results in incarceration for criminal behavior

3. Knowledge of problems involving criminal incarceration of mentally impaired persons

4.  Criminal prosecution and defense of mentally impaired offenders:

a.  Procedure (Arizona Criminal Rules 11 and 26.5)
b. Guilty Except Insane

5. Civil alternatives for mentally impaired offenders

6. Restorative Justice and mentally impaired offenders:

Mental Health Courts & Probation


Use of real world situations & problems in Yuma County.

Focus on Yuma County in context of national issues

Research projects

Observation of local criminal justice programs and processes

Role Playing

Classroom problem solving exercises

Written assignments due by next class

Final Exam


August 26 & Sept. 2:

Introductory Statistics
Reasons why so many mentally ill persons enter the criminal justice system.
How mentally impaired persons enter the criminal justice system
“Homeless”mentally impaired
Domestic violence and mental impairment
Law enforcement  encounters with mentally impaired persons

a)     Disorderly Conduct
b)    Indecent exposure
c)     Criminal Damage
d)    Trespass
e)     Assault
f)     Domestic Violence calls
g)    Violations of Court Orders
h)    Suicidal persons
i)      Police shootings
False confessions
Law enforcement training needed.
Role play exercises-police encounters with mentally impaired


“frequent fliers”
“Greyhound Therapy”
“mercy bookings”
parens patriae

  1. Why so many mentally ill persons stay or return repeatedly to criminal justice system
    1. Lack of preparation/support upon re-entry into society from incarceration
    2. Probation/parole violations
    3. Prison disciplinary infractionsVocabulary:Assault (as defined in Arizona Revised Statutes)
      VoluntarinessSept. 9:Types of mental impairment
      Mental Illness:
      a. Five categories of mental illness are:

      1)    Psychotic (schizophrenia/loses touch with reality)
      2)    Mood (severe mood changes – major depression, manic depression – bipolar)
      3)    Anxiety (phobias, overwhelming internal conflicts & fears)
      4)    Personality (PTSD, Paranoid, Antisocial personality – seem unable to learn from experience)
      5)    Organic (fetal alcohol syndrome, adult/adolescent brain
      damage from drugs or alcohol)

      2.      Developmental disability  (low IQ, learning disabilities, autism)

      3.      Brain damage resulting in mental impairment that is not mental illness (inability to read, speak, coordinate movements, etc.)

      4.      Co-occurring disorders:  alcohol/drug addiction & mental illness

      Vocabulary:   acting out
      co-occurring disorders
      dual diagnosis

      Sept. 16 & Sept. 23:

      Scope of the problem in jails and prisons

      Large numbers of mentally impaired prisoners
      Cost to taxpayers of imprisonment
      Harm suffered by OMI (offenders with mental impairments) while incarcerated:
      Solitary confinement
      Lack of treatment
      Victimized by other prisoners
      Injuries/new criminal charges due to correctional/detention officers lack of  training for OMI Dangerousness of OMI who fail to receive treatment and/or are not understood by untrained staff.
      Social/economic costs to society upon release of these damaged persons

      Possible solutions to the problems

      Jail Diversion”-screening of arrestees to sent them to alternatives to incarceration if possible.
      Better mental health care in jails and prisons
      Re-entry “safety nets” for released prisoners who are mentally impaired.
      Better mental health care in the community

      cuff up

      Sept. 30:

      History of  approaches to mental illness

      1.    Demonic Possession
      2.    Neglect/Abandonment
      3.   “Insane asylums”
      4.   Lobotomy
      5.   Tightening standards for involuntary commitment
      6.    Closing down of mental hospitals
      5.     Outpatient mental health care


      Least restrictive alternative

      Oct. 7 & 14:

      Procedural and legal issues in prosecution,  defense  and sentencing of mentally impaired defendants
      Constitutional right to due process

      a)     Constitutions- federal and state
      b)    What is procedural due process?

      Competency to stand trial

      1.     Definition of competency
      2.     Criminal procedure
      3.     Restoration of competency

      Sell v. United States, 539 U.S. 166 (2003)  Forced medication for trial competence purposes may be permissible only under certain circumstances

      4.     Types of mental impairment most often resulting in permanent incompetency:

      i.     Psychosis
      ii.     Mental retardation
      iii.     Brain disease or injury

      Mental state at the time of the offense (insanity defense)

      a)     Arizona’s Guilty Except Insane

      Clark v. Arizona, 548 U.S. 735

      Mitigating factors
      Prosecutorial discretion

      a)     Charging decisions
      b)    Plea Agreements
      c)     Sentencing recommendations/stipulations

      6.     Confinement of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity:

      These defendants cannot be involuntarily confined in a mental institution if they are not  both mentally ill and dangerous. Foucha v. Louisiana, 504 U.S. 71 (1992)

      6. Capital punishment & mentally impaired defendants

      a)     “[T]he Eighth Amendment prohibits a State from carrying out a sentence of death upon a prisoner who is insane.”

      Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U. S. 399, 409-410 (1986)

      b)  The Eighth Amendment prohibits execution of the mentally retarded. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)

      7. Discussion of high profile cases:  Andrea Yates, Virginia Tech shooter and more.

      due process
      forensic (forensic pathologist, forensic psychiatrist)
      Oct. 21, 28 &  Nov. 4:

      Alternatives to criminal incarceration for OMI

      1. “Civil” Mental Health Treatment

      a. Civil court ordered treatment

      1)”Civil commitment”

      General principles of civil commitment

      2) Arizona Revised Statutes Title 36 Court Ordered Treatment

      b. Outpatient treatment options for the mentally ill

      2.   “Jail Diversion”

      a.  Pre-booking & post-booking

      b.  Crisis Intervention Teams.

      c.  Treatment plans for OMI so that they may be released from jail

      3.  Probation with mental health treatment

      4.  Mental Health Courts

      Nov. 18 & Nov 25:

      Mentally impaired juveniles and the criminal justice system.

      Dec. 2:

      Review for final exam

      Dec. 9:  Final Exam

      Required Reading List:

      Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America, Report of President’s Commission (2003).  (available on internet)

      Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Mentally Ill Homeless Person, by Paulette Marie Gillig  [Chapters 7 & 8 online at VISTA]

      Community Corrections in America: New Directions and Sounder Investments for Persons with Mental Illness and Codisorders, by Arthur Lurigio [Chapters 1 & 2 online at VISTA]

      Crazyby Pete Earley (2006) [required purchase at NAU/AWC bookstore]

      The Criminalization of Mental Illness  Crisis and Opportunity for the Justice System, by Risdon N. Slate and W. Wesley Johnson (2008)  Caroline Academic Press.
      (NAU-AWC Library request made) [Chapters 3 and 11 will be posted on VISTA]

      Handbook of Correctional Mental Health, Edited by Charles Scott, MD, and Joan Gerbasi, JD, MD. American Psychiatric Association (2005) (NAU-AWC Library request made) [Selected chapters will be assigned]

      The Homeless, by Louise Gerdes [Chapter 3 online at VISTA]

      Jailing Communities The Impact of Jail Expansion and Effective Public Safety Strategies,  April 2008, Justice Policy Institute (available online at

      Juvenile Justice Sourcebook: Past, Present and Future   by Albert R. Roberts [Chapter 12 online at VISTA]

      Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons,  by Linda A. Teplin  (July 2000)  National Institute of Justice Journal. (Available online)

      Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, by Robert Whitaker  [Chapter 11 and Epilogue online at VISTA]

      Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System, Edited by Daniel W. Phillips, III Ph.D (2008), The Haworth Press.  (NAU-AWC Library request made) [Selected chapters will be assigned]

      Mentally Ill Offenders in the Criminal Justice System:  An Analysis and Prescription,  The Sentencing Project 2002 (available online)

      Mentally Impaired Offenders and the Criminal Justice System, by Sarah Wolfe, The Texas Bar Journal, March 2006 (available online)

      The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America,  National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (available online at

      Prison Madness: the Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About It, by Terry Allen Kupers [Chapters 1 & 2 online at VISTA]

      Total Confinement: madness and reason in the maximum security prison by Lorna A. Rhodes (2004) University of California Press (Available online at AWC & NAU Yuma Library) [Selected chapters will be assigned]

      Women in Prison, by Joan Esherick [Chapters 1 & 3 on VISTA]

      Rules 11; 26.5  of Arizona Rules of Criminal Procedure,

      Arizona Revised Statute (ARS) Section  13-502 (insanity defense),

      ARS Title 36 sections relating to court ordered mental health evaluations & treatment.

      Required Films: The New Asylums,  2005 documentary by PBS Frontline:

      Recommended reading list:

      Acting Out: Maladaptive Behavior in Confinement, By Hans Toch and Kenneth Adams. American Psychological Association (2002).


      Back to the Asylum:  The Future of Mental Health Law and Policy in the United States, by By John Q. LaFond, JohnQ. La Fond, Mary L. Durham, Oxford University Press US (1992)


      Beyond Reason: The Death Penalty and Offenders with Mental Retardation, by Human Rights Watch (2001);  


      Care of the Mentally Disordered Offender in the Community (Oxford Medical Publications)

      by Alec Buchanan Oxford University Press; 1st edition (January 15, 2002)


      Coordinating Community Services for Mentally Ill Offenders:  Maryland’s Community Criminal Justice  Treatment Program, by Catherine Conley, National Institute of Justice (April 1999)


      Crazy in America:  The Hidden Tragedy of Our Criminalized Mentally Ill, by Mary Beth Pfeiffer (2007)  Carroll & Graf Publishers


      Criminal behaviour: A psychosocial approach (7th ed.) by Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall (2005);


      Diagnosis: Schizophrenia by Rachel Miller, Susan Mason (2002) Columbia University Press


      The Discovery of the Asylum  Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic  by David J. Rothman  (1990)  Little, Brown & Company [Instructor has copy]


      Emerging Judicial Strategies for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Caseload: Mental Health Courts in Fort Lauderdale, Seattle, San Bernardino and Anchorage,  by John S. Goldkamp and Cheryl Irons-Guynn, (April 2000) Crime and Justice Research Institute, Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S.


      Games Criminals Play And How You Can Profit By Knowing

      Them, Allen, B. & Bosta, D. (1981) Rae John Publishers


      Handbook of Forensic Mental Health with Victims and OffendersAssessment, Treatment and Research,   by  David W. Springer and Albert R. Roberts,  (2007) Springer Publishing Company;


      Juvenile Offenders and Mental Illness:  I Know Why the Caged Bird Cries,  Ed. Lisa A. Rapp-Paglicci (2006) Book News, Inc.  (Available through Kline Library)


      Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses  The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court,  Michael Thompson, Dr. Fred Osher, Denise Tomasini-Joshi,  A Report prepared by the Council of State Governments Justice Center, Criminal Justice/Mental Health Consensus Project for the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice  (2008) (available online at


      The Insanity Offense: How America’s Failure to Treat the Seriously Mentally Ill Endangers Its Citizens by E. Fuller Torrey;


      Law and Mental Health:  a Case-Based Approach, by  Robert G. Meyer and

      Christopher M. Weaver, Guilford Press (2005)


      Madness in the Streets:  How Psychiatry and the Law Abandoned the Mentally Ill, by Rael Jean Isaac and Virginia C. Armat  (1990) The Free Press  A Division of Macmillan, Inc. [Instructor has copy]


      Mentally Disordered Offenders: managing people nobody owns, by David Webb (1999) (Available AWC & NAU Yuma Library Online)


      Offenders with Developmental Disabilities, by William R. Lindsay,  John L. Taylor and  Peter Sturmey (2004) Wiley;


      Out of the Shadows: Confronting America’s Mental Illness Crisis  by Dr. E. Fuller Torrey (1997) John Wiley & Sons


      Policing Persons with Mental Illness: The Pennsylvania Experience, Jim Ruiz (2002) Pennsylvania State Data Center;


      Prison Madness:  the mental health crisis behind bars and what we must do about it, by Terry Allen Kupers (1999) (Available at AWC-NAU Yuma Library)


      Serving Mentally Ill Offenders: Challenges and Opportunities for Mental Health Professionals, by Gerald Landsberg, Marjorie Rock, and Lawrence K.W. Berg (2002) Springer Publishing Company;


      Street Crazy:  America’s Mental Health Tragedy, by Stephen B. Seagar, (2000) Westcom Press

      (about the homeless mentally ill)


      Surviving Schizophrenia: A Manual for Families, Patients, and Providers  (5th Edition) by E. Fuller Torrey,  Harper Collins


      Treating Adult and Juvenile Offenders With Special Needs, Edited by Jose Ashford, Bruce Sales and William Reid. American Psychological Association (2001).

      “Why It is Essential to Teach About Mental Health Issues in Criminal Law (and a Primer on How to Do It)” by Richard E. Redding, Villanova University School of Law, Public Law and Legal Theory, (2004) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy;


      Case law:


      Clark v. Arizona, 548 U.S. 735 (2006),


      Sell v. United States, 539 U.S. 166 (2003)


      Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)


      Foucha v. Louisiana 504 U.S. 71 (1992)


      Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U. S. 399 (1986)


      Estelle v. Gamble (1976):  Withholding of medical care for prisoners and 8th Amendment Cruel and Unusual Punishment


      Lake v. Cameron (1966):  least restrictive alternative for treatment


      First hand accounts of mental illness (Fiction and Non-fiction)

      (Many of these are available through the NAU Library, and/or Barnes & Noble) 


      Anthology of a Crazy Lady:  A Creative Cure Through Writing & Art, by Susan L. Heisler (2000)


      Autobiography of a Schizophrenic Girl  The True Story of “Renee”,  with an analytic  interpretation by Marguerite Sechehuye, translated by Grace Rubin-Rabson (1951) (1968 Merideth Books) [available at Barnes & Noble]


      The Beast  A Reckoning With Depression  by Tracy Thompson (1995) G.P. Putnam’s Sons [Instructor has copy]


      A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar (1998)


      The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath (1963) [Instructor has copy]


      A Brilliant Madness: Living with Manic Depressive Illness by Patty Duke and Gloria Hochman (1992)


      A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess (1962)


      Crazy by Pete Earley (2006) [Copies ordered by bookstore for course]


      The Center Cannot Hold: My Journey Through Madness by Elyn R. Saks (2007)


      The Day the Voices Stopped:  A Memoir of Madness and Hope, by Ken Steele, Claire Berman, Stephen M. Goldfinger (2001) Basic Books


      Detour My Bipolar Road Trip in 4-D by Lizzie Simon (2002) Atria Books [Instructor has copy]


      ElectroBoy, A Memoir of Mania, by Andy Behrman  (2003) Random House


      Girl, interrupted by Susanna Kaysen (2000) Thorndike Press [available at Barnes & Noble]


      I am not sick I don’t need help by Xavier Amador (2007)  Vida Press


      Me, Myself, and Them: A Firsthand Account of One Young Person’s Experience with Schizophrenia (Adolescent Mental Health Initiative) by Kurt Snyder, Raquel E. Gur, Linda Wasmer Andrews (2007) Oxford University Press


      One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nestby Ken Kesey (1962);


      Prozac Nation  A Memoir, by Elizabeth Wurtzel (1994) Riverhead Books, NY [available at Barnes & Noble]


      The Quiet Room  A Journey Out of the Torment of Madness,  Lori Schiller and Amanda Bennett (1994) Warner Books


      Recovered, Not Cured:  A Journey Through Schizophrenia, by Richard McClean (2003)


      Snake Pit, by Mary Jane Ward (1946)


      Stranger On The Planet  The Small Book of Laurie  by Claire Burch (1997) Regent Press [Instructor has copy]


      “Suddenly, Last Summer” by  Tennessee Williams (1958) (play)


      Sugar and Salt:  My Life With Bipolar Disorder, by Jane Thompson (2006) Authorhouse


      Sybil by Flora Rheta Schreiber (1973)


      The Three Faces of Eve by Dr. Hervey M. Cleckley & Dr. Corbett H. Thigpen (1957)


      “The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether” by Edgar Allan Poe (1844) (short story)



      Films that depict mental illness, mental impairment, mental hospitals, psychiatric treatment or societal attitudes toward the mentally impaired: 


      Angel Baby (Australian film), The Aviator (Leonardo DiCaprio & Kate Blanchett -directed by Martin Scorsese)(2004), A Beautiful Mind (schizophrenia) (Russell Crowe) (2001), The Bell Jar (2008 & 1979),  Benny and Joon (Johnny Depp) (1993),  A Clockwork Orange (Malcolm McDowell)(directed by Stanley Kubrick) (1971), Conspiracy Theory (Mel Gibson & Julia Roberts) (1997), Dare to Love (1995), Dialogues With Madwomen (documentary by Allie Light) (1993), Donnie Darko,  The Fight ClubForget Me Never (Alzheimers) (Mia Farrow) (1999), The Manchurian Candidate (“brain washing” & assassination) (both versions – 1962 -Frank Sinatra & Angela Lansbury– & 2004-Denzel Washington & Meryl Streep),  One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest  (mental hospitals & lobotomy) (Jack Nicholson) (1975), Pi,  Prozac Nation (Christina Ricci) (2003),  Rain Man (autism) (Dustin Hoffman & Tom Cruise) (1988), The Saint of Fort Washington, The Shining  (Jack Nicholson) (1980), Snake Pit (1948) (Olivia de Havilland),  Spellbound (directed by Alfred Hitchcock) (1945), Suddenly, Last Summer (mental hospitals & lobotomy) (Elizabeth Taylor & Katherine Hepburn) (1959),   Sybil (Sally Field & Joanne Woodward) (1976),  The Three Faces of Eve (Joanne Woodward) (1957),  Spider (directed by David Cronenberg),  Terminator 2 (mental hospitals), Titicut Follies (mental hospitals) (documentary by Frederick Wiseman) (1967), Through a Glass Darkly (directed by Ingmar Bergman),  Twelve Monkeys (mental hospitals) (Bruce Willis & Brad Pitt) (1995).



      Northern Arizona University

      Policy Statements


      Safe Environment Policy

      NAU’s Safe Working and Learning Environment Policy seeks to prohibit discrimination and promote the safety of all individuals within the university.  The goal of this policy is to prevent the occurrence of discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color, age, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or veteran status and to prevent sexual harassment, sexual assault or retaliation by anyone at this university.


      You may obtain a copy of this policy from the college dean’s office.  If you have concerns about this policy, it is important that you contact the departmental chair, dean’s office, the Office of Student Life (928-523-5181), the academic ombudsperson (928-523-9368), or NAU’s Office of Affirmative Action (928-523-3312).


      Students with Disabilities

      If you have a documented disability, you can arrange for accommodations by contacting the office of Disability Support Services (DSS) at 928-523-8773 (voice), 928-523-6906 (TTY). In order for your individual needs to be met, you are required to provide DSS with disability related documentation and are encouraged to provide it at least eight weeks prior to the time you wish to receive accommodations. You must register with DSS each semester you are enrolled at NAU and wish to use accommodations.


      Faculty are not authorized to provide a student with disability related accommodations without prior approval from DSS. Students who have registered with DSS are encouraged to notify their instructors a minimum of two weeks in advance to ensure accommodations. Otherwise, the provision of accommodations may be delayed.


      Concerns or questions regarding disability related accommodations can be brought to the attention of DSS or the Affirmative Action Office.

      Institutional Review Board

      Any study involving observation of or interaction with human subjects that originates at NAU-including a course project, report, or research paper-must be reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for the protection of human subjects in research and research-related activities.


      The IRB meets once each month.  Proposals must be submitted for review at least fifteen working days before the monthly meeting.  You should consult with your course instructor early in the course to ascertain if your project needs to be reviewed by the IRB and/or to secure information or appropriate forms and procedures for the IRB review.  Your instructor and department chair or college dean must sign the application for approval by the IRB.  The IRB categorizes projects into three levels depending on the nature of the project:  exempt from further review, expedited review, or full board review.  If the IRB certifies that a project is exempt from further review, you need not resubmit the project for continuing IRB review as long as there are no modifications in the exempted procedures.


      A copy of the IRB Policy and Procedures Manual is available in each department’s administrative office and each college dean’s office.  If you have questions, please contact  928-523-8288.


      Academic Integrity

      The university takes an extremely serious view of violations of academic integrity.  As members of the academic community, NAU’s administration, faculty, staff and students are dedicated to promoting an atmosphere of honesty and are committed to maintaining the academic integrity essential to the education process.  Inherent in this commitment is the belief that academic dishonesty in all forms violates the basic principles of integrity and impedes learning.  Students are therefore responsible for conducting themselves in an academically honest manner.


      Individual students and faculty members are responsible for identifying instances of academic dishonesty.  Faculty members then recommend penalties to the department chair or college dean in keeping with the severity of the violation.  The complete policy on academic integrity is in Appendix G of NAU’s Student Handbook.


      Academic Contact Hour Policy

      The Arizona Board of Regents Academic Contact Hour Policy (ABOR Handbook, 2-206, Academic Credit) states:  “an hour of work is the equivalent of 50 minutes of class time…at least 15 contact hours or recitation, lecture, discussion, testing or evaluation, seminar, or colloquium as well as a minimum of 30 hours of student homework is required for each unit of credit.”


      The reasonable interpretation of this policy is that for every credit hour, a student should expect, on average, to do a minimum of two additional hours of work per week; e.g., preparation, homework, studying.


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