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Mentally Impaired Offenders Syllabus (Fall 2009)

Sept. 6, 2009


CCJ 499 Seq. Number 1097-11488

Tuesday 7:15-9:45 pm,  3 credit hours

Classroom AC ___

College of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Dept of Criminology & Criminal Justice

NAU Fall Semester 2009

Mary E. White, B.A., J.D.

Yuma County Attorney’s Office

250 W. 2nd St., Suite G

Yuma, AZ 85364

Office hours by appointment

928-817-4335 (weekdays)

928-257-9824 (cell)

Course Description :    Study of the problems involving mentally impaired offenders in U.S. criminal justice system.

Student Learning Expectations/Outcomes for this Course :

(1) Students should have knowledge of  current problems involving mentally impaired

offenders in the U.S. criminal justice system.

(2) Students should have an overview of the approaches currently being used or proposed

for solving these problems.

Course structure/approach:    Lecture, class discussion,  role play exercises, guest speakers, readings, research reports,   written assignments, classroom quizzes and final exam.

Textbooks:           Crazy by Pete Earley  and

The Insanity Offense by E. Fuller Torrey

All other required reading will be posted on VISTA.

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes

Methods of Assessment

Written assignments based upon class discussions & assigned readings

Classroom quizzes

Research Report –substantial research paper –at least 10 pages

Final Exam

Extra credit activities:  a written report must be completed as to each activity.

Timeline for Assessment

                Written assignments will be  graded onVISTA.

                Students are encouraged to turn in research drafts early and more often

than required, in order to receive as much feedback as possible.

                1st draft research report due:  October 13 (Bring 2 copies to class)

                Final Research report due:   November 17

Final Exam:  December 

Grading System

Points are awarded for quality of research, identification of sources   & original thinking.

Grammar, punctuation and spelling will be considered in  grading.

                Grading will be   90-100%   A

                                                80-89 %     B

                                                70-79%      C

                                                 60-69%     D 

Students who have earned an A or B on total written assignments and Research Paper will not have to take the final exam.

Students must have completed a Research Report and at least 50% of written assignments in order to be eligible for Extra Credit points.                     

Course policy 

  • All written assignments should be turned in on VISTA only.  Do not use attachments.
  • Research papers should be brought to class as “hard  copies” only.  Do not use attachments.
  • Extra credit assignments should be brought to class as “hard copies” or pasted onto VISTA or pasted into e-mail.  Do not use attachments .

*  Retests/Make-ups:

Final Exam  and quizzes may be made up if missed due to illness or personal emergency.   The make-up exam/quiz may not be the same as the exam given in class.

  • Attendance.    If class is missed, student is responsible for making up the reading and/or assignments missed.
  • Statement on plagiarism and cheating.   Plagiarism and/or cheating will result in a failing grade.   DO NOT COPY SOMEONE ELSE’S  PAPER FROM PRIOR SEMESTER.

University policies:  See attached Safe Working and Learning Environment, Students with Disabilities, Institutional Review Board, and Academic Integrity policies.


1.    Knowledge of types of mental impairment

2.    Understanding of how mental impairment results in incarceration for criminal behavior

3.    Knowledge of problems involving criminal incarceration of mentally impaired persons

4.    Criminal prosecution and defense of mentally impaired offenders:

a.    Procedure (Arizona Criminal Rules 11 and 26.5)

b.    Guilty Except Insane

     5. Civil alternatives for mentally impaired offenders (“Title 36” etc.)

6. Restorative alternatives to jail or prison for mentally impaired offenders:

   Mental Health Courts & Probation


Use of real world situations & problems in Yuma County.

Focus on Yuma County in context of national issues

   Research projects

   Observation of local criminal justice programs and processes

   Role Playing

   Classroom problem solving exercises

  Written assignments due by next class

  Final Exam


A.  Introductory Statistics

B.   Reasons why so many mentally ill persons enter the criminal justice system.

C.   How mentally impaired persons enter the criminal justice system

1.    “Homeless” mentally impaired

2.    Domestic violence and mental impairment

3.    Law enforcement  encounters with mentally impaired persons

a)    Disorderly Conduct

b)   Indecent exposure

c)    Criminal Damage

d)   Trespass

e)    Assault

f)    Domestic Violence calls

g)   Violations of Court Orders

h)   Suicidal persons

i)     Police shootings

4.    False confessions

5.    Law enforcement training needed.

6.    Role play exercises—police encounters with mentally impaired persons



“de facto” –de facto mental institutions


“frequent fliers”

“Greyhound Therapy”

“mercy bookings”

parens patriae

D.  Why so many mentally ill persons stay or return repeatedly to criminal justice system

1.    Lack of preparation/support upon re-entry into society from incarceration

2.    Probation/parole violations

3.    Prison disciplinary infractions


Assault (as defined in Arizona Revised Statutes)





E.    Types of mental impairment

1.    Mental Illness:

a. Five categories of mental illness are:

1)   Psychotic (schizophrenia/loses touch with reality)

2)   Mood (severe mood changes – major depression, manic

depression, bipolar)

3)   Anxiety (phobias, overwhelming internal conflicts & fears)

4)   Personality (PTSD, Paranoid, Antisocial personality – seem

unable to learn from experience)

5)   Organic (fetal alcohol syndrome, adult/adolescent brain

damage from drugs or alcohol)

2.     Developmental disability  (low IQ, learning disabilities, autism)

3.     Brain damage  (other than mental illness) — inability to read, speak, coordinate movements, etc.

4.     Co-occurring disorders:  alcohol/drug addiction & mental illness

Vocabulary:   acting out





co-occurring disorders



dual diagnosis





F.   Scope of the problem in jails and prisons

1.    Large numbers of mentally impaired prisoners

2.    Cost to taxpayers of imprisonment

3.    Harm suffered by OMI (offenders with mental impairments) while incarcerated:

Solitary confinement

Lack of treatment

Victimized by other prisoners

Injuries/new criminal charges due to correctional/detention officers lack of  training for OMI

4.    Dangerousness of OMI who fail to receive treatment and/or are

not understood by untrained staff.

5.    Social/economic costs to society upon release of these damaged


G.  Possible solutions to the problems

1.    “Jail Diversion”—screening of arrestees to sent them to alternatives to

incarceration if possible.

2.    Better mental health care in jails and prisons

3.    Re-entry “safety nets” for released prisoners who are mentally impaired.

4.    Better mental health care in the community




cuff up







H.  History of  approaches to mental illness

1.   Demonic Possession

2.   Neglect/Abandonment

3.  “Insane asylums”

4.  Lobotomy

5.  Tightening standards for involuntary commitment

6.   Closing down of mental hospitals

5.    Outpatient mental health care




Least restrictive alternative




I.     Procedural and legal issues in prosecution,  defense  and sentencing of mentally impaired defendants

1.     Constitutional right to due process

a)    Constitutions- federal and state

b)   What is procedural due process?

2.    Competency to stand trial

1.    Definition of competency

2.    Criminal procedure

3.    Restoration of competency

Sell v. United States, 539 U.S. 166 (2003)  Forced medication for trial competence purposes may be permissible only under certain circumstances

4.    Types of mental impairment most often resulting in permanent incompetency:

i.     Psychosis

ii.     Mental retardation

iii.     Brain disease or injury

3.    Mental state at the time of the offense (insanity defense)

a)    Arizona’s Guilty Except Insane

Clark v. Arizona, 548 U.S. 735 (2006),

4.    Mitigating factors

5.    Prosecutorial discretion

a)    Charging decisions

b)   Plea Agreements

c)    Sentencing recommendations/stipulations

6.    Confinement of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity:

These defendants cannot be involuntarily confined in a mental institution if they are not  both mentally ill and dangerous.  Foucha v. Louisiana 504 U.S. 71 (1992)

6. Capital punishment & mentally impaired defendants

a)    “[T]he Eighth Amendment prohibits a State from carrying

out a sentence of death upon a prisoner who is insane.”

                                                         Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U. S. 399, 409–410


b)   The Eighth Amendment prohibits execution of the mentally     retarded. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)

7.    Discussion of high profile cases:  Andrea Yates, Virginia Tech

Shooter and more.




due process

forensic  (forensic pathologist, forensic psychiatrist)






J.     Alternatives to criminal incarceration for OMI

1. “Civil” Mental Health Treatment

a. Civil court ordered treatment

1)“Civil commitment”

General principles of civil commitment

2) Arizona Revised Statutes Title 36 Court Ordered Treatment

b. Outpatient treatment options for the mentally ill

2.  “Jail Diversion”

a.  Pre-booking & post-booking

b.  Crisis Intervention Teams.

c.  Treatment plans for OMI so that they may be released from jail

3.  Probation with mental health treatment

4.  Mental Health Courts

K.  Mentally impaired juveniles and the criminal justice system.

Review for final exam

Final Exam

Required Reading List:   

Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America, Report of President’s Commission (2003).  (available on internet & on VISTA)

Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Mentally Ill Homeless Person, by Paulette Marie Gillig  [Chapters 7 & 8 online at VISTA–book on reserve at Academic Library]

Community Corrections in America: New Directions and Sounder Investments for Persons with Mental Illness and Codisorders, by Arthur Lurigio [Chapters 1 & 2 online at VISTA & in Government Documents at Academic Library]

Crazy by Pete Earley (2006) [required purchase at NAU/AWC bookstore—2 copies on reserve at Academic Library]

The Criminalization of Mental Illness  Crisis and Opportunity for the Justice System, by Risdon N. Slate and W. Wesley Johnson (2008)  Caroline Academic Press.

(NAU-AWC Library request made) [Chapters 3 and 11 will be posted on VISTA]

Handbook of Correctional Mental Health, Edited by Charles Scott, MD, and Joan Gerbasi, JD, MD. American Psychiatric Association (2005) (book on reserve at Academic Library) [Chapters 3 & 4 will be posted on VISTA]

The Homeless, by Louise Gerdes [Chapter 2 online at VISTA & full book on reserve at Academic Library]

Jailing Communities The Impact of Jail Expansion and Effective Public Safety Strategies,  April 2008, Justice Policy Institute (available on VISTA and online at

Juvenile Justice Sourcebook: Past, Present and Future   by Albert R. Roberts [Chapter 12 online at VISTA]

Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons,  by Linda A. Teplin  (July 2000)  National Institute of Justice Journal. (Available online & on VISTA)

Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, by Robert Whitaker  [Chapter 11 and Epilogue online at VISTA– full book on reserve at Academic Library]

Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System, Edited by Daniel W. Phillips, III Ph.D (2008), The Haworth Press.  (book on reserve at Academic Library) [Preface & Chapter I  & Chapter by Michael Weaver on VISTA]

Mentally Ill Offenders in the Criminal Justice System:  An Analysis and Prescription,  The Sentencing Project 2002 (available online)

Mentally Impaired Offenders and the Criminal Justice System, by Sarah Wolfe, The Texas Bar Journal, March 2006 (available online)

The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America,  National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (available online at & link posted on VISTA)

Prison Madness: the Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About It, by Terry Allen Kupers [Chapters 1 & 2 online at VISTA & full book on reserve at Academic Library]

Total Confinement: madness and reason in the maximum security prison by Lorna A. Rhodes (2004) University of California Press (Available online at AWC & NAU Yuma Library) [Selected chapters will be assigned]

Women in Prison, by Joan Esherick [full book on reserve at Academic Library & Chapters 1 & 3 on VISTA]

Rules 11 & 26.5  of Arizona Rules of Criminal Procedure,

Arizona Revised Statute (ARS) Section  13-502 (guilty except insane),

ARS Title 36 sections relating to court ordered mental health evaluations & treatment.

Required Films:   The New Asylums,  2005 documentary by PBS Frontline:

Recommended reading list:  

Acting Out: Maladaptive Behavior in Confinement, By Hans Toch and Kenneth Adams. American Psychological Association (2002).

Back to the Asylum:  The Future of Mental Health Law and Policy in the United States, by By John Q. LaFond, JohnQ. La Fond, Mary L. Durham, Oxford University Press US (1992)

Beyond Reason: The Death Penalty and Offenders with Mental Retardation, by Human Rights Watch (2001)

Care of the Mentally Disordered Offender in the Community (Oxford Medical Publications)

by Alec Buchanan Oxford University Press; 1st edition (January 15, 2002)

Coordinating Community Services for Mentally Ill Offenders:  Maryland’s Community Criminal Justice  Treatment Program, by Catherine Conley, National Institute of Justice (April 1999)

Crazy in America:  The Hidden Tragedy of Our Criminalized Mentally Ill, by Mary Beth Pfeiffer (2007)  Carroll & Graf Publishers

Criminal behaviour: A psychosocial approach (7th ed.) by Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall (2005);

Diagnosis: Schizophrenia by Rachel Miller, Susan Mason (2002) Columbia University Press

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition,  Text Revision (American Psychiatric Association 2000)  –useful reference book – available at Barnes & Noble.

The Discovery of the Asylum  Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic  by David J. Rothman  (1990)  Little, Brown & Company [Instructor has copy]

Emerging Judicial Strategies for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Caseload: Mental Health Courts in Fort Lauderdale, Seattle, San Bernardino and Anchorage,  by John S. Goldkamp and Cheryl Irons-Guynn, (April 2000) Crime and Justice Research Institute, Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S.

Games Criminals Play And How You Can Profit By Knowing

Them, Allen, B. & Bosta, D. (1981) Rae John Publishers

Handbook of Forensic Mental Health with Victims and OffendersAssessment, Treatment and Research,   by  David W. Springer and Albert R. Roberts,  (2007) Springer Publishing Company;

Juvenile Offenders and Mental Illness:  I Know Why the Caged Bird Cries,  Ed. Lisa A. Rapp-Paglicci (2006) Book News, Inc.  (Available through Kline Library)

Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses  The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court,  Michael Thompson, Dr. Fred Osher, Denise Tomasini-Joshi,  A Report prepared by the Council of State Governments Justice Center, Criminal Justice/Mental Health Consensus Project for the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice  (2008) (available online at

Law and Mental Health:  a Case-Based Approach, by  Robert G. Meyer and Christopher M. Weaver, Guilford Press (2005)

Madness in the Streets:  How Psychiatry and the Law Abandoned the Mentally Ill, by Rael Jean Isaac and Virginia C. Armat  (1990) The Free Press  A Division of Macmillan, Inc. [Instructor has copy]

Mentally Disordered Offenders: managing people nobody owns, by David Webb (1999) (Available AWC & NAU Yuma Library Online)

Offenders with Developmental Disabilities, by William R. Lindsay,  John L. Taylor and  Peter Sturmey (2004) Wiley;

Out of the Shadows: Confronting America’s Mental Illness Crisis  by Dr. E. Fuller Torrey (1997) John Wiley & Sons

Policing Persons with Mental Illness: The Pennsylvania Experience, Jim Ruiz (2002) Pennsylvania State Data Center;

Prison Madness:  the mental health crisis behind bars and what we must do about it, by Terry Allen Kupers (1999) (Available at AWC-NAU Yuma Library)

Serving Mentally Ill Offenders: Challenges and Opportunities for Mental Health Professionals, by Gerald Landsberg, Marjorie Rock, and Lawrence K.W. Berg (2002) Springer Publishing Company;

Street Crazy:  America’s Mental Health Tragedy, by Stephen B. Seagar, (2000) Westcom Press (about the homeless mentally ill)

Surviving Schizophrenia: A Manual for Families, Patients, and Providers  (5th Edition) by E. Fuller Torrey,  Harper Collins

Treating Adult and Juvenile Offenders With Special Needs, Edited by Jose Ashford, Bruce Sales and William Reid. American Psychological Association (2001).

“Why It is Essential to Teach About Mental Health Issues in Criminal Law (and a Primer on How to Do It)” by Richard E. Redding, Villanova University School of Law, Public Law and Legal Theory, (2004) Washington University Journal of Law & Policy;

Case law:

Clark v. Arizona, 548 U.S. 735 (2006)  Arizona’s Guilty Except Insane

Sell v. United States, 539 U.S. 166 (2003) Forced medication for trial competence purposes may be permissible only under certain circumstances. 

Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002) The Eighth Amendment prohibits execution of the mentally  retarded.

Pennsylvania Department of Corrections v. Yeskey, (US Supreme Court) (1998)  The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 applies to state prisoners.

Foucha v. Louisiana 504 U.S. 71 (1992) [T]he Eighth Amendment prohibits a State from carrying out a sentence of death upon a prisoner who is insane. 

Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U. S. 399 (1986) [T]he Eighth Amendment prohibits a State from carrying out a sentence of death upon a prisoner who is insane.”

Addington v. Texas,  441 U.S. 418 (1979)

Bowring v. Godwin, 4th Circuit (1977) psychiatric needs are included in serious medical needs.

 Estelle v. Gamble (1976):  Withholding of medical care for prisoners and 8th Amendment Cruel and Unusual Punishment – authorities cannot incarcerate persons with “deliberate indifference” to prisoners serious medical needs,

O’Connor v. Donaldson,  422 U.S. 563 (1975)

Jackson v. Indiana,  406 U.S. 715 (1972)  due process is violated by involuntarily committing a defendant solely because he is incompetent when there is no reasonable probability that he will ever become competent.

Lake v. Cameron (1966):  least restrictive alternative for treatment

First hand accounts of mental illness (Fiction and Non-fiction)

(Many of these are available through the NAU Library, and/or Barnes & Noble)  

Anthology of a Crazy Lady:  A Creative Cure Through Writing & Art, by Susan L. Heisler (2000)

Autobiography of a Schizophrenic Girl  The True Story of “Renee”,  with an analytic  interpretation by Marguerite Sechehuye, translated by Grace Rubin-Rabson (1951) (1968 Merideth Books) [available at Barnes & Noble] 

The Beast  A Reckoning With Depression  by Tracy Thompson (1995) G.P. Putnam’s Sons [Instructor has copy]

A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar (1998)

The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath (1963) [Instructor has copy]

A Brilliant Madness: Living with Manic Depressive Illness by Patty Duke and Gloria Hochman (1992)

A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess (1962)

The Center Cannot Hold: My Journey Through Madness by Elyn R. Saks (2007)

The Day the Voices Stopped:  A Memoir of Madness and Hope, by Ken Steele, Claire Berman, Stephen M. Goldfinger (2001) Basic Books

Detour My Bipolar Road Trip in 4-D by Lizzie Simon (2002) Atria Books [Instructor has copy]

ElectroBoy, A Memoir of Mania, by Andy Behrman  (2003) Random House

Girl, interrupted by Susanna Kaysen (2000) Thorndike Press [available at Barnes & Noble]

I am not sick I don’t need help by Xavier Amador (2007)  Vida Press

Is There No Place On Earth For Me? By Susan Sheehan (1982) (Pulitzer Prize winning biography of a schizophrenic woman)

Me, Myself, and Them: A Firsthand Account of One Young Person’s Experience with Schizophrenia (Adolescent Mental Health Initiative) by Kurt Snyder, Raquel E. Gur, Linda Wasmer Andrews (2007) Oxford University Press

My Confession by Leo Tolstoy

One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nestby Ken Kesey (1962);

Out of Her Mind Women Writing on Madness edited by Rebecca Shannonhouse, The Modern Library, New York (2000)

Prozac Nation  A Memoir, by Elizabeth Wurtzel (1994) Riverhead Books, NY [available at Barnes & Noble]

The Quiet Room  A Journey Out of the Torment of Madness,  Lori Schiller and Amanda Bennett (1994) Warner Books

Recovered, Not Cured:  A Journey Through Schizophrenia, by Richard McClean (2003)

Snake Pit, by Mary Jane Ward (1946)

Stranger On The Planet  The Small Book of Laurie  by Claire Burch (1997) Regent Press [Instructor has copy]

“A Streetcar Named Desire” by Tennessee Williams (1947) (play)

“Suddenly, Last Summer” by  Tennessee Williams (1958) (play)

Sugar and Salt:  My Life With Bipolar Disorder, by Jane Thompson (2006) Authorhouse

Sybil by Flora Rheta Schreiber (1973)

The Three Faces of Eve by Dr. Hervey M. Cleckley & Dr. Corbett H. Thigpen (1957)

“The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether” by Edgar Allan Poe (1844) (short story)

“The Unicorn in the Garden” short story by James Thurber (1939)

Films that depict mental illness, mental impairment, mental hospitals, psychiatric treatment or societal attitudes or beliefs regarding the mentally impaired:  

Angel Baby  (Schizophrenia) (Directed by Michael Rymer) (Australian film) (1995) (US release 1997), The Aviator (Leonardo DiCaprio & Kate Blanchett –directed by Martin Scorsese)(2004), Awakenings (Robin Williams) (1990),  A Beautiful Mind (schizophrenia) (Russell Crowe) (2001), The Bell Jar (2008 & 1979),  Benny and Joon (Johnny Depp) (1993),   Call Me Anna (made for television movie about actor Patty Duke’s struggle with bipolar illness) (1990), Chattahoochee (Gary Oldman & Dennis Hopper) (1990),  A Clockwork Orange (Malcolm McDowell)(directed by Stanley Kubrick) (1971), Conspiracy Theory (Mel Gibson & Julia Roberts) (1997), Dare to Love (1995), Dialogues With Madwomen (documentary by Allie Light) (1993) (won Emmy Award 1994), Donnie Darko (2001),  Fatal Attraction (Glenn Close & Michael Douglas) (1987), The Fight Club (Brad Pitt) (1999),  Forget Me Never (Alzheimers) (Mia Farrow) (1999), Frances (Jessica Lange) (1982) , Girl, Interrupted (Winona Ryder, Angelina Jolie, Vanessa Redgrave, Whoopi Goldberg) (2000),  Gothika (Halle Berry & Robert Downey, Jr) (2003),  King of Hearts (French film) (1966),  K-PAX (Kevin Spacey, Jeff Bridges, Mary McCormack) (2001),  The Manchurian Candidate (“brain washing” & assassination) (both versions – 1962 –Frank Sinatra & Angela Lansbury– & 2004—Denzel Washington & Meryl Streep),  Mr. Jones  (Richard Gere) (1993), One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest  (mental hospitals & lobotomy) (Jack Nicholson) (1975), Open Your Eyes (Abre los Ojos) (Penelope Cruz) (Spanish film)  (1997),  Patch Adams (Robin Williams), Pi (1998),  Prozac Nation (Christina Ricci) (2003),  Rain Man (autism) (Dustin Hoffman & Tom Cruise) (1988), Requiem for a Dream (Ellen Burstyn) (2000), The Saint of Fort Washington (homelessness & mental illness) (Danny Glover & Matt Dillon) (1993), Session 9 (directed by Brad Anderson) (2001),  Sharon’s Secret (made for TV, directed by Michael Scott) (1995), The Shining  (Jack Nicholson) (1980), Snake Pit (1948) (Olivia de Havilland),  Spellbound (directed by Alfred Hitchcock) (1945), A Stranger to Love  (brain damage-amnesia) (Beau Bridges)(1996),  A Streetcar Named Desire (“nervous breakdown” & civil commitment) (1951)  (Vivien Leigh & Marlon Brando),  Suddenly, Last Summer (mental hospitals & lobotomy) (Elizabeth Taylor & Katherine Hepburn) (1959),   Sybil (Sally Field & Joanne Woodward) (1976),  The Three Faces of Eve (Joanne Woodward) (1957),  Spider (directed by David Cronenberg) (2002),  Terminator 2: Judgment Day (Arnold Schwarzenegger & Linda Hamilton) (mental hospitals) (1991), Titicut Follies (mental hospitals) (documentary by Frederick Wiseman) (1967), Through a Glass Darkly (directed by Ingmar Bergman) (Max von Sydow) (1961),  Twelve Monkeys (mental hospitals) (Bruce Willis & Brad Pitt) (1995), The Unicorn in the Garden (animated adaptation of James Thurber’s short story) (1953), Vanilla Sky (Tom Cruise, Penelope Cruz, Kurt Russell) (2001).




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