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Restorative Justice Syllabus (Fall 2007)

RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
CJ 480 Seq. Number 10615
Tuesday 7:15-9:45 pm, 3 credit hours
College of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Dept of Criminal Justice
NAU Fall Semester 2007
Mary E. White, J.D.
Yuma County Attorney’s Office
250 W. 2nd St., Suite G
Yuma, AZ 85364

Office hours by appointment
817-4335 (weekdays)
257-9824 (cell)
maryewhite1@gmail.com

Course Description : Introduction to the principles & practices of Restorative Justice.

Student Learning Expectations/Outcomes for this Course :

(1) Students should be able to describe the principles and purposes of restorative justice. They should understand the ways in which restorative justice meets and balances the needs of victims, offenders and the community.

(2) They should understand where restorative justice practices and/or program may be implemented within the structures of our traditional criminal justice system, both juvenile and adult. They should also see possibilities for change of these traditional criminal justice structures to better reflect restorative values.

(3) They should have an overview of the social and criminal justice problems which restorative justice seeks to address.

4) They should have basic knowledge of four (4) restorative justice programs/processes : Yuma County Community Justice Boards as developed by the Yuma County Attorney’s Office in partnership with Juvenile Court, New Zealand Restorative Justice Conferences as developed by the Ministry of Justice, Victim-Offender Mediation as developed by Centre for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, University of Minnesota, School of Social Work, Mark S. Umbreit, Ph.D. and Real Justice Conferencing as developed by the International Institute for Restorative Practices (IIRP), Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

These four (4) programs/processes are taught as examples of how restorative justice works when applied to incidents of crime, to give students practical knowledge of restorative justice.

(5) They should have an overview of the variety among restorative justice processes in Arizona, the U.S. as well a internationally and an understanding of the extent to which these processes reflect the values and practices of restorative justice.

(6) Students should have a basic understanding of the concept of problem solving courts. This will be illustrated by Yuma County’s Drug Court Programs.

Course structure/approach: Lecture, class discussion & role play exercises, guest speakers, readings, research reports, in class research project, writing assignments related to research reports and in-class research project.

Textbook and required materials:

Restorative Justice Facilitator Training Manual, Ministry of Justice, New Zealand (2003)
Available online at www.courts.govt.nz/crrj

Other required and recommended materials/references (See attached reading list)

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes

  • Methods of Assessment

Written assignments based upon class discussions & assigned readings
Research Report
Oral presentations
Final Exam

Timeline for Assessment

Written assignments will be graded & returned by next class period
Students are encouraged to turn in research drafts early and more often than required, in order to receive
as much feedback as possible.
1st draft research report due: Oct. 16
Final Research report due: Nov. 20
Oral presentations: Nov 27 and Dec. 4
Final Exam: Dec. 11

Grading System
Points are awarded for accuracy of knowledge, identification of sources & ability to apply concepts of
restorative justice to criminal justice issues

Grading will be 90-100% A
80-89 % B
70-79% C
60-69% D

Course policy

  • Retests/makeup tests

Final Exam may be made up if missed due to illness or personal emergency. The make-up exam will not be the same as the exam given in class.

  • Attendance. If class is missed, student is responsible for making up the reading and/or assignments missed.
  • Statement on plagiarism and cheating. Plagiarism and/or cheating will result in a failing grade.

University policies: See attached Safe Working and Learning Environment, Students with Disabilities, Institutional Review Board, and Academic Integrity policies.

Aug. 28:

INTRODUCTION: What is Restorative Justice?

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

1. Challenge assumptions about crime, law & justice
2. Develop restorative problem solving abilities in the context of local criminal justice issues and programs.
3. Identify the great issues of our time in American criminal justice, discover how they are reflected in the lower Colorado River region, and consider whether and how restorative justice may be applied to them.
4. Engage students in acquiring practical knowledge of restorative justice principles.

METHODS:

Use of real world situations & problems in Yuma County.
Focus on Yuma County in context of national & global issues
Research projects
Observation of local criminal justice programs and processes
Role Playing
Classroom problem solving exercises
Written assignments due by next class
Oral presentations by students
Final Exam

I. JUSTICE VS. LAW IN THE UNITED STATES

Sept. 4:
II. GOALS & THEORIES OF TRADITIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE

III. HISTORY & RESULTS OF TRADITIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE

IV. CRIMINAL JUSTICE & SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Sept. 11 & 18:
V. WHAT IS RESTORATIVE JUSTICE?

VI. COMPARISON: TRADITIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE & RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

VII. SHARED GOALS OF TRADITIONAL & RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

Sept. 25, Oct. 9 & 16:
VIII. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE APPLICATIONS

Oct. 16: STUDENT 1ST DRAFTS OF REPORTS DUE

Oct. 23:
IX. HOW TO START & ESTABLISH A RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
PROGRAM

Oct. 30:
X. HISTORY AND RESULTS OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

Nov. 6:
XI. OBSERVE TEEN COURT

Nov. 13 & 20:
XII. RESTORATIVE PRACTICES OUTSIDE OF THE JUSTICE SYSTEM

XIII. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE WORLDWIDE

Nov. 20: STUDENT RESEARCH REPORTS DUE

Nov. 27
XIV. STUDENT PRESENTATIONS

Dec. 4:
XV. STUDENT PRESENTATIONS

XVI. REVIEW FOR EXAM/CLOSING CIRCLE

Dec. 11:
XVII. FINAL EXAM

GRADE WILL BE BASED UPON THE FOLLOWING:

Written assignments: 30%
Final Exam 30%
1 Oral Presentation: 10%
Research report 30%

Oral presentations will be on the topic of the student’s written report. Each presentation
will be ten (10) minutes in length. Visual aids such as posters, photos, graphs, or powerpoint may be used but are not required.

Extra Credit projects:

(1) Additional research reports, projects & oral presentations
(2) Volunteer hours on Restorative Justice related projects such as Community Justice Boards

All projects, reports, presentations must be approved in advance by Professor.

Criteria for research reports, research topics and Extra Credit Projects are described in Appendix A

1st day of Class: a. Restorative Activity: Introductions with Talking Circle.
b. Introductory Description of Restorative Justice
c. Restorative Justice is multi-cultural & multi-disciplinary:
Anthropology
Criminal Justice
Education
Ethics
History
Law
Philosophy
Political Science
Psychology
Religion
Social Work
Sociology
d. Collection of writing sample

I JUSTICE VS LAW IN THE UNITED STATES

A. Definitions & philosophy:
1. “Justice”
2. “Law”
3. “Criminal justice”
4. Purpose of a court system:
to maintain peace within a society by resolving conflicts

B. Where does U.S. law come from?
1. Constitution
a. Revolution
b. Framers (Theory of natural rights/English common
law/freedoms/Individual rights)
c. Legislative Ratification
d. England does not have a constitution. Statutes are passed by Parliament with courts having no authority to overturn them.
Criminal law is common law rather than statutory.
2. Criminal statutes (federal & state)
a. Contrast with English common law of crimes.
b. Crimes in “civil law” countries defined by statutes/codes
3. Ballot propositions (Arizona)
4. Local ordinances
5. Courts (federal & state)
a. Case law
b. Court rules (evidence & procedure)
c. England has one national court system
d. Court decisions in “civil law” countries not legally binding
precedent

C. Criminal vs. Civil
1. Criminal
a. State v. Individual
b. Incarceration
c. Fines
d. Restitution
2. Civil
a. Individual or Legal Entity vs. Individual/Legal Entity
b. Money damages
1) Compensatory damages
2) Punitive damages
3) Court orders re: behaviors/property
a. Equitable remedies – injunction, specific performance
3. Historically, civil & criminal were not always so clearly separated.
a. Medieval & Roman times:
1) Perpetrators paid compensation to victims of serious
crime
b. England & America
1) Victims could “prosecute”
2) Debtors’ prison
4. Criminal & Civil actions
a. May apply to the same conduct (O.J.Simpson example)
b. May take place concurrently – ongoing at same time
5. Both Criminal & Civil:
a. Adversary
b. Reactive

D. Separation of Powers – U.S. Constitution
1. Legislative (Congress, state legislature, ballot propositions)
2. Executive (Governors, governing boards, prosecutors, police, prisons,
military)
a. President, Governors, governing boards
b. Military
c. Police
1) Police Discretion
1) To Cite or not to cite
2) Arrest or release (role play exercise)
2) Crime Prevention
a) Community Policing
b) School Resource Officers
c) Community Education
d. Prosecutors
1) Prosecutorial Discretion
1) Charging & Plea Decisions (role play exercise)
2) Obligation to do justice
i. Duty to protect public
ii. Duty not to prosecute innocent persons
iii. Fairness in conducting cases
iv. Objectivity/impartiality
3) Crime Prevention
i. Community Prosecution
ii.Community Education
e. Prison Administration
1) Parole decisions
2) Prison administration
3. Judicial branch (Judges, probation officers)
a. Judicial Discretion
1). Conditions of Release
2) Sentencing
b Jury verdicts
c. Probation Officers
1) Discretion – Juvenile Diversion, Adult Probation
referrals to Drug Court, deciding whether to file
Petition to Revoke Probation
d. In many “civil law” countries, judges play more active role in
gathering and determining facts

II. GOALS & THEORIES OF TRADITIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE

A. Crime as an offense against the “State”

B. Retributive Justice:
1.Retribution/Punishment

C. Utilitarian Justice
1. Deterrence of that individual
2. Deterrence of general public
3.Incapacitation of the offender
4.Rehabilitation–
“Fixing” the individual defendant

D. Defendants’ rights in United States criminal justice
1. Balancing the rights of individual defendant with need for
public safety
2. Overview of defendants’ rights in criminal cases
3. Reasons why defendants have rights in our system of justice

III. HISTORY & RESULTS OF TRADITIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE
SYSTEM

A. Traditional Criminal Justice (history)
1. Early “Western” civilization
a. No clear distinction between “civil” & “criminal”
b. Vengeance & blood feud
c. Compensation for serious crime paid by perpetrator/family to victim/family
d. Roman
e. England in Anglo-Saxon & Norman times
2. England
a. English trial by jury
b. English common law
1) Common law of crimes
c. Crimes against religion
d. Sentences
1) Execution
2) Corporal punishment
a) Whipping
b) Amputation of limbs
3) Transportation (exile)
4) Prisons were for debtors
5) Cruel & Unusual Punishments

3. U.S. History
a. American colonies & early U.S.
b. Constitutional rights
c. Protection of individuals accused of crime
d. Federal, state & local
e. Early American criminal justice (humane by English
& European standards of the time-for example,
though executed, the accused was not usually
tortured to death)
1) Some matters not recognized or punished today
a) Witchcraft
b) Sexual behavior such as adultery or
homosexuality
c) Failure to attend church
d) Kissing in public
e) Gossiping
2) Sentences
a) Corporal punishment
i. Whipping (horse thieves, failing to
attend church, homosexual behavior)
ii. Branding (hog & horse thieves)
iii. Cutting of ears or hands (thieves)
iv. Pillory & stocks (Puritans) (kissing
one’s wife in public)
v. Dunking (Puritans)
(Gossiping/quarrelling)
b) Shaming by public humiliation
c) Execution (usually by hanging)
(counterfeiters, bestiality, heretics)
f. Sentences in recent American history
1) Prisons
2) Chain gangs
3) Public executions
g. Juvenile Court
1) Theory
2) 1st Juv ct established in 1889 in Chicago
3) Movement spread throughout world

B. Current Results of traditional criminal justice in US
1. Imbalance between rights of defendants and rights of victims
2. Impersonal system where neither defendants nor victims feel
included
3. Numbers incarcerated

4. Effects of incarceration (role play-prison conditions & newly released
person)
a. Prisons
b. Physical & emotional trauma
c. Prison gangs
d. Schools for crime
e. Jails
5. Numbers on Probation
6. Numbers with criminal records
a. Effects of having a criminal record
1) Employment
2) Housing
3) Loss of right to vote
4) Loss of right to possess firearms or
other weapons
5) Cannot serve on jury
6) Other consequences of DUI, sex offenses & other crimes:
a). Sex Offender Registration
b). Loss of driver’s license
c) Mandatory fines
d). Effect on availability of auto
insurance
7. Expense of maintaining traditional U.S. criminal justice system
8. Recidivism

IV. CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

A. Substance Abuse
1. “Prohibition”
2. “Drug” laws in U.S.
a.. Criminalization
b. Decriminalization & Legalization

B. Minors
1. Alcohol
2. Cigarettes
3. Juvenile Court
a. Juvenile status offenses
1) Truancy
2) Curfew
1) “Incorrigible”
4. School Discipline
5. Best interests of the child vs. protection of public

C. Family Problems
1.Domestic Violence laws
a. Crimes
b. Collateral penalties (loss of right to possess firearms)
c. Child abuse laws

D. Mental Illness
1. Mentally impaired offenders
(Scenarios from police reports & real criminal cases re: mentally
impaired offenders)
Guest speaker: William Cady, Behavioral Analyst, Yuma County Detention Center
2. “Title 36” & “Rule 11

E. Criminal Justice as a reflection of social norms:
1. Ethics
a) What is the difference between right and wrong?
b) Is Criminal Justice concerned with ethics? Or
only with whether the law is obeyed?
2. Slavery
3. Alcohol/Drugs – Prohibition & cocaine in Coca-Cola
4. Sexual behavior
5. Animal cruelty laws

V. WHAT IS RESTORATIVE JUSTICE?

A. Definitions:
1. “Crime is a violation of people & relationships. It creates obligations to make things right. Justice involves the victim, the offender, and the community in a search for solutions which promote repair, reconciliation & reassurance. ” (Zehr in Changing Lenses)

2. [Restorative practice] is “‘A process whereby all the parties with a stake in a particular offense come together to resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offense and its implications for the future.’ The purpose of the process is to ‘restore victims, restore offenders, and restore communities in a way that all stakeholders can agree is just.'” (Braithwaite in Restorative Justice, quoted by Gabbay in “Justifying Restorative Justice: A Theoretical Justification of the Use of Restorative Justice Practices”)
3. More definitions of “Restorative Justice”

B. Balanced

C. Participatory

VI. CONTRAST TRADITIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE & RESTORATIVE
JUSTICE

A. Traditional U.S. Criminal Justice
1. Little or no victim participation
2. Limited defendant participation
3 Little or no involvement of community
4. One size fits all – lack of attention to individual needs
and circumstances:
a. Mandatory sentences
b. Limitations on restitution
c. Cookie-cutter justice – incarceration/probation

B. Restorative Justice
1. Healing/restoration/repair of harm
a. Victim
b. Offender
c. Community
2. Includes emphasis on emotional & psychological &
social restoration rather than only financial restitution.
Forgiveness is recognized. (Role play scenario: vehicular manslaughter)
3. Concern for the individual (both victim & offender)
4. Building competency/transformation of offender
5. Reintegration of offender into relationships
6. Involvement of community

VII. SHARED GOALS OF TRADITIONAL & RESTORATIVE JUSTICE:

A. Protection of the Public/Public Safety
1. Retributive and/or Utilitarian Justice’ Approach to achieve
public safety
a. Lock up/restrain the individual offender
b. Punishment as deterrent
c. Address problems of offenders
1) “Rehabilitation”
2) Juvenile Court
2. Restorative Justice Approach to achieve public safety
a. Teach accountability to offender
b. Build offender competency
c. Repair Harm to Community
d. Accomplished through personal interactions of
offenders with victims and community

B. Repair harm to victim
1. “Traditional” criminal justice system
a. Often requires financial restitution
b. Victims’ Rights Movement
2. Restorative Justice
a. Though it may include restitution, is
more concerned with making the victim, offender
and community whole by restoring
relationships and healing emotional harm.
b. Victim participation
c. Community participation

VIII. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE APPLICATIONS

A. Post Conviction
1. Usually more serious offenses
2. Sentencing
a. Victim/Offender Mediation
b. Sentencing Circles
3. Reparative Probation (Probation officer decision-making assignment)
4. Corrections
a. During incarceration
1) Victim/Offender Mediation
2) Preparation for Re-Entry
b. Post release

B. Pre-Conviction
1. Alternatives to Prosecution
a. Diversion
1) Police
2) Juvenile Court
3) Prosecutor
b. Juvenile Diversion Programs
c. Community Justice Boards
d. Victim/Offender Mediation
2. Deferred Prosecution
a. Prosecutor’s deferral programs
b. Therapeutic/ Problem Solving Courts
3. Post-Charging Victim/Offender Mediation

C. Addressing the needs of individual victims
a. All Restorative Justice processes should respect the interests of the
victim.

b. Victim/Offender Mediation
1. Fundamental principles
a) Goals: Emotional healing of victim, offender accountability,
more than dispute resolution
b) Victim’s participation is voluntary
c) Advance preparation of victim
d) Allows victims to speak
e) Victim support persons
2. Videos & role playing
c. Child victims
d. Legal Entity victims
e. “Victimless” crimes:
a) Parents & other family members
b) Community

D. Offender’s needs & problems (Therapeutic defense attorney assignment)
1. Building competency in offender
a. Resiliency
b. Behaviors that promote one’s individual well-being
c. Lessons learned from work with addiction
1) 12 Steps
2) Importance of spirituality
3) Taking care of one’s health & physical well-being
4) Education
5) Employment
6) Family
2. Criminal Courts as Therapeutic/ Problem Solving Courts
a. Drug Courts
Guest Speaker(s) from Yuma County Drug Courts
b. Domestic Violence Courts
c. Community Courts
d. Mental Health Courts
e. DUI Courts
f. Gambling Courts
g. Re-Entry Courts
3. Re-Entry Programs for Prisoners
a. Preparation for Release
b. Post-release programs
c. Guest Speaker from AZ Dept of Corrections
4. Consensual participation by offenders
a. Opportunity to speak/communicate with victim & community
b. Ageement as to consequences
c. Accept responsibility & be held accountable
d. Reintegration into community

E. Community Justice
1. Inclusion of community in traditional criminal justice
a. Closed criminal justice system vs. open
1) Notice to defendant & opportunity to defend
2) Public trials
b. Juries (trial & grand jury)
c. Elected Judges
2. Recent developments toward more community participation
a,. Victims’ Rights
b. Community Policing
c. Community Prosecution
d. Community partnerships – Weed & Seed
e. Teen Court
3. Inclusion of community in restorative justice practice
a. Sentencing Circles (Canadian model & others)
b. Conferencing & Community Restorative Boards
1) Community & Family Group Conferencing (New Zealand
model & others)
2) Restorative Justice Youth Conferencing in Colorado
3) Neighborhood Accountability Boards in Florida
4) Juvenile Corrections Board at Hanscom AFB in
Massachusetts
5) Community Justice Boards in Arizona
a) Basic principles
b) Community Justice Board Conference:
Role Playing Exercise
4. Indigenous & Customary Justice – Participation of the community
a. New Zealand
b. Australia
c. Canada
d. Africa
e. Philippines
f. Bangladesh

F. Economics of Restorative Justice
1. Cost of maintaining a restorative justice program
2. Cost comparison of operating traditional and restorative justice
programs
3. Long term savings resulting from restorative justice

IX. HOW TO START & ESTABLISH A RESTORATIVE JUSTICE PROGRAM

A. Effective Leadership

B. Know your community – every community is different

C. Choosing the form of your restorative justice program
1. Review applicable laws
2. What will work best in your community
a. Consult key community leaders
b. Focus groups
c. Planning committee

D. The planning process
1. Include all key partners/collaborators from the beginning to end of
your planning & development
2. Who to include in planning
1. Court
2. Prosecutors
3. Police
4. Defense bar
5. Service providers
a) Non-profits who serve your
offenders/victims (counseling, youth activities,
drug rehab, etc)
6. Education (schools & colleges)
7. Elected Officials
8. Faith community
9. Influential community leaders
10. Business community
3. Mobilize & sustain community support
a. Publicity
b. Involve community residents
1) Board members
2) Victim support
3) Fundraising
4) Assisting with program publicity
5) Supporting tasks

E. Identify and minimize risks and threats
1. Volunteers
a. Training
b. Supervision
c. Background checks
2. Continuous research and self-evaluation to improve program
3. Record keeping
4. Money handling
5. Freedom from control by interest groups/cliques

F. Funding & other resources
1. Use of pre-existing resources, structures & processes
2. Grants
a. Federal
b. State
c. Foundations
3. Private donations
a. In kind
b. Financial
4. “Pass-through” agencies for grants & donations
5. Volunteers
6. Funding from local governmental entity (county, city)

G. Maintaining the program
1. Coordinator (must understand the purposes/goals of every element of
the program and have flexibility to adapt to changing needs and learn
from experience.)
2. Staff
3. Continuous community outreach

X. HISTORY AND RESULTS OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

A. History
1. In its present form, recently evolving in last half of 20th and
beginning of 21st Centuries.
2. Started by law enforcement agencies in Canada & Australia
3. Fits within historical trends
a. Growing respect for human rights & dignity
1) American Declaration of Independence & Bill of
Rights
2) Abolition of slavery
3) Child labor laws
4) End of public executions in U.S.
5) Women’s suffrage
6) Desegregation in U.S.
7) Equal participation of women in society

b. Need for a sense of community and connection with
others
1) Causes
a) Fragmentation of families
i. Geographic separation
ii. Single parent homes
iii. Parents working long hours
b) Transience of residence due to job related moves
c) Lack of time and opportunity for individuals to
connect in overcrowded, fast paced and stressed
society
2) Manifestations of this need for community and
connection:
a) Joining churches
b) Service club membership
c) Organizations with common goals/interests
d) Gangs
e) Use of internet to connect with other humans –
My Space, internet matchmakers, blogs, chat
rooms, personal websites, etc.
g) Importance of organized sports in 20th & 21st
centuries
c. Feelings of powerlessness
1) Causes
a) Overcrowded institutions
Examples: “Assembly line” criminal courts,
overcrowded schools
b) Unresponsive, impersonal government &
private agencies, institutions and large
corporations
c) Loss of trust in government and religion
d. Need to end and heal ethnic/religious conflicts, civil
wars, conflict between nations
1) Restorative practices are being developed as
ways to resolve conflicts and heal wounds of past
conflicts
a) Peacemaking through Restorative Justice in
currently war torn areas:
i. Middle East
2) Rebuilding the capacity of the justice system in
areas of past conflict:
i. Africa
ii. Northern Ireland

4. Borrowing from indigenous, aboriginal or customary cultures.
a. New Zealand
b. Australia
c. Canada
d. More….
5. Pioneers of modern Restorative Justice:
a. New Zealand
b. Australia
c. Canada-Ontario 1974
d. More …
6. Equity in traditional English & American civil jurisprudence
— RJ is reviving the idea that courts can fashion individualized
restorative remedies beyond the letter of the law
7. Growing use of mediation in civil disputes

B. Results of restorative justice
1. Reduced Recidivism
2. Victim healing
3. Building offender competency
5. Restoring the community
a. Empowerment of community through
knowledge & participation (authority comes
from community instead of imposed from
outside/above)
b. Enhances ability of community to resolve
conflicts
c. Healing/repair of harm to community
d. Strengthens problem solving ability of
community
e. Strengthen social cohesion of community

XI. OBSERVE TEEN COURT
(7:00 – 9:00 pm at Juvenile Court)

Prepare a report re: your impressions of Teen Court. Does
it fit the principles of Restorative Justice? If so, how? If not,
why not? What do you believe is most effective about Teen
Court? Least effective? Is there anything that can
be improved? If so, how can this be accomplished with little
or no added expense? Any other comments you may have
regarding Teen Court.

XII. RESTORATIVE PRACTICES APPLIED OUTSIDE OF THE JUSTICE
SYSTEM

A. Schools
1. Peer Mediation
2. Conflict Resolution Circles

B. Parenting

C. Substance abuse treatment

D. Workplace

E. Neighborhood Mediation Centers

F. Family Group Conferencing/Decision making (Child Protective
Services type agencies)

G. Homeless Shelters

H. Police decision making which incorporates restorative
Principles

I. Mediation of cases in which prosecution was declined

XIII. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE WORLDWIDE

(The following list is not all inclusive but rather for example purposes only)

1. United Nations:
a. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
b. Vienna Declaration on Crime & Justice: Meeting the
Challenges of the Twenty-First Century (2000)
c. August 2002 Resolution of United Nations Economic and
Social Council
d. 2005 Declaration of the Eleventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders
2. New Zealand:
Guest Speaker: Leslynne Jackson
3. Australia
4. Europe
Austria
Belgium
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Great Britain
Hungary
The Netherlands
Northern Ireland
Portugal
Russian Federation
Slovenia
5. Middle East
Palestinian Muslims
6. Africa:
Ghana
Lesotho
Somalia
South Africa
7. Canada:
British Columbia
Manitoba
Ontario
8. United States
Mennonites
Arizona (Pima County, Yuma County)
CA (Orange County, San Francisco Sheriff’s Dept,
Fresno State University)
Colorado
Florida
Iowa
Minnesota
Massachusetts
Montana
North Carolina
North Dakota
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Utah
Virginia
Wisconsin
9. Jamaica
10. South America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
11. Central America:
Guatemala
12. Asia:
Pakistan
Thailand

XIV. STUDENT PRESENTATIONS

Students’ oral presentations

XV. REVIEW FOR EXAM

Restorative Activity: Closing Circle

XVI. FINAL EXAM

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