Choose one (1).
You may choose a that is topic not on the list.
Professor must approve your choice of topic.
Follow any accepted research paper format that you have been taught.
Identify all sources.
Any credible sources may be used so long as they are identified.(Books, articles, internet, interviews, observations, news reports & documentaries, movies, personal experiences, etc.)
Your research paper should:
1. State clearly the question or questions which you are addressing.
2. Give references and information sufficient to answer the question(s).
3. Address any opposing views.
4. Use credible references.
5. Have logical and coherent organization.
6. State a conclusion which summarizes and supports your position on the topic.
7. Use correct grammar, punctuation and spelling.
TOPIC: HISTORY OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE.Describe the development of restorative justice in the 20th and 21st centuries.
How does what is happening in Yuma County fit within this historical trend?
Community Policing.Describe theory and practice of community policing throughoutthe US.
Describe the Yuma Police Department’s Community Policing programs.Does the Yuma County Sheriff or any other law enforcement agency in our county, besides Yuma PD, have a community policing program?
TOPIC:PRISONER RE-ENTRY IN ARIZONA
Describe Arizona’s prisoner re-entry programs
Describe any such programs in Yuma County
Re-entry programs in jail & prison
Re-entry preparation within prison and post-release
Do these programs have any aspects of
Do you have recommendations for
improvement of any ofthese programs?
How would these improvements beaccomplished?
Consider whatresourceswould be needed andthe cost.
TOPIC:CRIMINAL STREET GANGS:
What is a criminal street gang?(Definitions)
What are the causes for young people, especially juveniles, getting involved with gangs?(Research this:have any studies been done?In addition to reporting on any published research, you may interview gang members.)
How can we prevent young people from getting involved with gangs?
If a young person is already involved with a gang, how can we get him or her away from the influence of gangs?
Consider Community Justice Boards and/or Juvenile Diversion,what kinds of consequences or assignments could be given to a child to help them stay away from gangs?
What are the most powerful prison gangs in Arizona? California? United States?
Symbols, code words, tattoos and slang of major prison gangs
History of Prison Gangs.How and where did they get started?
How did they spread?
How do you get into a prison gang?
How do you get out?
What kinds of things do you do as a gang member?How are these gangs a threat within prisons?
How are these gangs a threatoutside of prison in society?
What can be done to reduce the power and membership of prison gangs?
TOPIC:RESTORATIVE PRACTICES IN YUMA SCHOOLS:Do any local schools have Restorative Practices such as Peer Mediation?If so, which schools?Describe how the practice works.Are restorative goals being achieved?If so, how.
TOPIC:COMMUNITY JUSTICE BOARDS IN YUMA COUNTY
Describe this program
Describe membership of Boards
Describe a Community Justice Board conference
Describe kinds of consequences given to juveniles
Purposes of consequences
Results – observations of conferences, interviews with juveniles & parents, recidivism statistics
Victim participation:Can victims participate?In what ways?
How can victim participation be encouraged?
Cultural issues:cultures of juveniles and parents/of Board members
Are cultural perspectives of juveniles & parents being
recognized?If so, in what ways?
TOPIC:Restorative community service opportunities for juvenile offenders in Yuma County. Locate as many such opportunities as possible.Study each one.Which children are eligible? What exactly will the child be doing?How is this restorative to the child, community and/or crime victim?Which types of children and crimes would fit with this activity? Is it a safe environment for the child?
TOPIC: Restorative youth activities for juvenile offenders in Yuma County. Locate as many such activities as possible.Study each one.Which children are eligible? What exactly will the child be doing?What needs of the child does this fulfil?How does it build competency in the child? is this restorative to the child, community and/or crime victim?Which types of children and crimes would fit with this activity? Is it a safe environment for the child?
TOPIC:DOMESTIC VIOLENCE COURT:
Describe the planned DV Court for Yuma County
Describe the theories supporting DV Courts throughout the US
TOPIC:MENTAL HEALTH COURT:
Describe the theory and practice of at least one Mental Health Court inthe US.Include a discussion of how this is funded.
Describe the planning of Yuma County’s Mental Health Court.How can resources for this be found?
Describe the theory and practice of at least one DUI Court in the U.S.
Where can the resources be found to establish such a Court?
TOPIC: ADULT PROBATION
1.What is probation like for a defendant?What types of requirements must the defendant meet?Are any of these restorative?Which ones?How are these requirements restorative?
2.Compare probation with prison.Is probation more effective in reducing re-offending?Are there statistics showing recidivism of probationers compared with defendants who were sent to prison?
If probation is more effective than prison,what are the reasons for this?Are there any studies showing why probation is more effective at reducing criminal behavior?
3.How can restorative justice methods such as victim/offender conferencing, community justice boards and others be incorporated into probation?
1. What is probation like for a juvenile?What types of requirements must the
juvenile meet?Are any of these restorative?Which ones?How are these requirements restorative?
2.Compare probation with incarceration.Is probation more effective in reducing re-offending?Are there statistics showing recidivism of probationers compared with juveniles who were sent to prison?To Juvenile DOC?To detention?
If probation is more effective than incarceration,what are the reasons for this?Are there any studies showing why probation is more effective at reducing criminal behavior?
2.How can restorative justice methods such as victim/offender conferencing, community justice boards and others be incorporated into juvenile probation?
TOPIC:SEX OFFENDERS and RESTORATIVE JUSTICE:
Can Restorative Justice be applied to sex offenders?
If so, how and with which types of offenders.
TOPIC:RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN A GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OTHER THAN YUMA COUNTY Choose one specific location and describe a particular program or activity.Describe, discuss how it is restorative and consider whether any aspects of it may be applied in Yuma County.
Possible starting points forRESTORATIVE JUSTICE WORLDWIDE:
(The following list isnot all inclusive but rather for example purposes only)
1. United Nations:
a. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
b. Vienna Declaration on Crime & Justice: Meeting the
Challenges of the Twenty-First Century (2000)
a.August 2002 Resolution of United Nations Economic and
b.2005 Declaration of the Eleventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders
2.New Zealand &
8. United States
Arizona (Maricopa County, Pima County,
Pinal County,Yuma County)
California (Orange County, San Francisco Sheriff’s
Dept., Fresno State University)
New York (Child & Family Services)